UN PO' DI STORIA DEL TERRITORIO

 

PINEROLO:

The Pinerolo’s territory has been inhabited since prehistoric times, as evidenced by the findings of bracelets, axes, chisels and fragments of bronze tools found near “Piazza Guglielmone” in the early 70s. The Roman domination has the most famous testimony in the necropolis of the “Doma Rossa”, an indication of a presumably agricultural presence in the territory of “Riva di Pinerolo”.

The Pinerolo’s name appears for the first time in 981 with the name “Pinarolium” (pine forest) in a document of Ottone II where the Turin’s bishop got confirmed the properties, rights and privileges over the city enjoyed by his predecessors. In this period “Pinerolo” wasn’t a real city, but a Court formed by the villages of “San Verano”, “San Pietro Val Lemina”, S”an Maurizio” (the highest village of Pinerolo) and “San Donato” (low village). At the time, “San Verano” was the most important of these villages, being at the entrance of the “Val Chisone”. In 1064 the city was yielded to the abbey of San Verano’s Benedictines, today called “Abbadia Alpina”, at the behest of Adelaide di Susa. Against the claims of the bishop of Turin, supported by a document from Frederick I, the Pinerolo’s citizens rose in defense of the Benedictines, thus gaining municipal freedoms.

Pinerolo got struggles and rebellions under the domain of Thomas I of Savoy who occupied it in 1220 and strong contrasts with the abbey of “San Verano” which in 1243 waived his propiety rights in favor of Amedeo IV of Savoy and his brother Thomas II of Savoy . Under control of Tommaso and his descendants Pinerolo had peace and prosperity: it’s been elected in 1295 the capital of their properties in Piedmont, it remained so until the extinction of the Savoy-Achaia family in 1418, when Amedeo VIII collected all the Savoy possessions in Italy and France in only one State.

Pinerolo underwent French domination from 1536 to 1574, after this period it received the title of city from Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia. It was again occupied by France according to the Cherasco treaty (1631). Cardinal Richelieu then entrusted Vauban, the greatest French military engineer of that time, the task of making Pinerolo an extraordinary fortress destined to ensure to France control of Northern Italy.

A cost of continuous expropriation of assets and land, the city walls were restored, the castle was rebuilt, the city had been enlarged. Only two gates remained to the city, the one of France and the one of Turin. The fortress of Pinerolo, the “Donjon”, was also used as a prison, where Louis XIV sent his enemies, among whom the mysterious well-known personage "Iron Mask".

Pinerolo was reconquered by Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy in 1696, but before leaving, the “King Sun” blew up the city and the castle. Carlo Emanuele III obtained from Benedict XIV the appointment of Pinerolo as bishopric. Trade recovered, the population went from 5,000 to 7,000 citizens and religious orders began to bloom.

In 1801 Piedmont was annexed to France and Pinerolo was occupied for the last time by the French, until 1814 with the fall of Napoleon’s empire and the return of Piedmont to Vittorio Emanuele I. In 1821 from Pinerolo began the insurrectional movement led by “Santorre di Santa Rosa” and “Guglielmo Moffa di Lisio”, which was a prelude of the Italian “Risorgimento”. A period of economic and building development began: bridges, roads, railways that facilitate trade with “Liguria” and with all the region.

In 1848 the first Mutual Aid Society of Italy was founded in Pinerolo, the "General Society of Workers" created for "union, brotherhood, mutual aid and mutual education". In 1849 the Cavalry Application School was moved in to the city (suppressed in 1945), now home, among other things, of the National Museum of Cavalry Weapons and the Museum of Prehistoric Art. From the near valleys a new population flowed into the city: the inhabitants went from 12,000 in 1819 to 18,000 in 1890. Pinerolo actively participated in to the Italian Resistance. It was in Pinerolo that the terrorists, founders of the Red Brigades, Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini were arrested on 8 September 1974.

Luigi Facta

“Love mine, our Pinerolo with the great love with which I loved it” (cit)

Son of Vincenzo Facta, lawyer and solicitor, and Margherita Falconetto, he spent most of his youth studying: he graduated in Law at the University of Turin, became a lawyer in the law firm and entered  in politics in 1884 being elected councilor municipal of Pinerolo, city of which he was subsequently mayor. In 1892 he became a deputy in the college of his hometown, when he was punctually re-elected over the next thirty years.

“Giolittiano”, member of the Liberal Party, called himself "Giolittiano with a faded personality". During his career, which also led him work occasionally as a journalist, he had many political positions: he was undersecretary of justice (1903-1905) and of the interior (1906-1909) and then became Minister of Finance (from 1910 to 1914 ).

At the beginning of the First World War, he supported the neutralists ideas, but sided with national needs after the country's went in war. His son was the pilot and soldier Giovanni Facta part of the 10th bombing team "Caproni" shot down on 29 June 1916 by Hansa-Brandenburg C.I. of the Air Force Ace Heinrich Kostrba (9 victories) and landed in an emergency beyond the Italian lines at “Zocchi di Asiago” destroying itself and causing Giovanni's death. After the death of his son in battle, he claimed to be proud of having handed over the boy's existence to his homeland. After the war he continued his ascent and was first appointed Minister of Justice in the Orlando’s government (1919) and subsequently again Minister of Finance in the fifth executive led by Giolitti (1920 - 1921).

King Vittorio Emanuele III of Savoy appointed him president of the Council of Ministers on February 26, 1922 (Facta I Government). Facta (that occupied the role of Minister of the Interior) was disheartened in July; but the king, unable to find anyone else able to form a new government, sent Facta back to the Chamber who voted on 1 August (Facta II Government). Facta remained in this position until October 27 of the same year. When he kew that fascists organized a march on Rome, he was at first undecided on what to do and then he proposed to the King to promulgate the state of siege, without however getting the signature from the King.

The historical judgment of this character is not negative and is remembered as a good politician and opposed to fascism for his support for the proclamation of the state of siege during the march on Rome.

Facta never wanted to tell to anyone what happened the night when the king refused to sign the state of siege: the following day, he and the government resigned, and Vittorio Emanuele III telegraphed Mussolini who was in Milan to go immediately to Rome to form the new government. Facta did not oppose the regime, and in 1924 he was appointed senator of the Kingdom.